Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a devastating pulmonary disease that results from an aggressive allergic response to fungal colonization in the airways. Animal models using either fungal antigen or live infection reproduce most of the clinical features seen during ABPM in humans. Results from these studies have facilitated a detailed analysis of the key factors involved in the afferent as well as efferent phase of the disease. This review focuses on allergic bronchopulmonary disease caused by two different fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans): allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary cryptococcosis. Observations from both models underline the importance of initial innate immune responses and their translation into appropriate adaptive responses. In addition, data derived from knockout studies give emphasis to targeting cytokines and chemokines as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ABPM.