Objective: A genome-wide scan of gene expression in leucocytes in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes was performed and correlated with their known phenotype.
Methods: Microarray gene profiling of 13,474 sequence-verified, non-redundant human cDNAs was done to study leukocyte gene expression in Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes (DM: n=3) and matched controls (n=3).
Results: Significant differential expression (fold change <0.3 or >3) was noted for 897 genes in DM vs. controls. The 147 known genes in this category belonged to following broad functional groups (%): enzyme (32), nucleic acid binding (22), ligand binding or carrier (10), signal transducer (9), transporter (7), structural protein (6), cell adhesion (3), tumor suppressor (3), transcription factor binding (2), enzyme inhibitor (2), chaperone (2), cell cycle regulator (1), and defense/immunity protein (1). The 20 genes with at least a 3-fold change, annotated with known phenotypic associations in the current gene databank (phenotype association, fold change) were aspartoacylase (Canavan disease, 9.96), growth hormone receptor (Laron dwarfism, idiopathic short stature, 8.25), lipoprotein lipase (familial chylomicronemia syndrome, lipoprotein lipase deficiency, 8.00), vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor (involutional osteoporosis, vitamin D resistant rickets, 7.94), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 human rhinovirus receptor (cerebral malaria susceptibility, 7.16), peroxisomal membrane protein 3 35-kDa (Refsum disease, infantile form, Zellweger syndrome-3, 6.00), Bardet-Biedl syndrome 2 (Bardet-Biedl syndrome, 5.87), ribosomal protein S19 (Diamond Blackfan anemia, 5.85), apolipoprotein C-III (hypertriglyceridemia, 5.44), argininosuccinate lyase (argininosuccinicaciduria, 5.22), myosin VA (Griscelli syndrome-type pigmentary dilution with mental retardation, 4.92), lysozyme (renal amyloidosis, 4.17), SAM domain, SH3 domain and nuclear localisation signals 1 (Cherubism, 4.12 ), von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (hemangioblastoma, cerebellar, somatic, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, 3.94), early-onset breast cancer 1 (BRCA1, papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum, 3.73), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (inclusion body myopathy, autosomal recessive, sialuria, 3.53), apolipoprotein A-I (amyloidosis, 3 or more types, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, 3.29), midline 1 Opitz/BBB syndrome (Opitz G syndrome, type I, 3.28), ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 (+) polypeptide (familial hemiplegic migraine, 3.05). Canavan disease, Zellweger syndrome, infantile Refsum disease, Griscelli syndrome, cherubism, breast cancer, peritoneal papillary serous carcinoma, Opitz G/BBB syndrome, and familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) are phenotypes not previously reported in association with type 2 DM, but whose underlying genes were up-regulated in this peripheral genome scan of Asian Indians.
Conclusion: Rare and/or previously unknown phenotypes linked to known genes with significant differential expression in type 2 DM are reported. Further testing of heterogeneity in diabetes phenotype syndromes may reveal common pathogenic mechanisms and potential candidate genes responsible for type 2 DM.