Eukaryotic genomes are packaged into nucleosomes whose position and chemical modification state can profoundly influence regulation of gene expression. We profiled nucleosome modifications across the yeast genome using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarrays to produce high-resolution genome-wide maps of histone acetylation and methylation. These maps take into account changes in nucleosome occupancy at actively transcribed genes and, in doing so, revise previous assessments of the modifications associated with gene expression. Both acetylation and methylation of histones are associated with transcriptional activity, but the former occurs predominantly at the beginning of genes, whereas the latter can occur throughout transcribed regions. Most notably, specific methylation events are associated with the beginning, middle, and end of actively transcribed genes. These maps provide the foundation for further understanding the roles of chromatin in gene expression and genome maintenance.