Systemic inflammation induces apoptosis with variable vulnerability of different brain regions

J Chem Neuroanat. 2005 Oct;30(2-3):144-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2005.07.003.


During severe sepsis several immunological defence mechanisms initiate a cascade of inflammatory events leading to multi-organ failure including septic encephalopathy and ultimately death. To assess the reaction and participation of parenchymal brain cells during endotoxaemia, the present study evaluates micro- and astroglial activation, expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pro- and antiapoptotic protein levels Bax and Bcl-2, and apoptosis. Male Wistar rats received 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle intraperitoneally and were sacrificed for brain collection at 4, 8 or 24 h after induction of experimental sepsis. One group of animals received 10 mg/kg of the NOS inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) intraperitoneally 1 day before and during the experiment. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a sepsis-induced, time-dependent increase in the immunoreactivity of iNOS, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and activated microglia (ED-1), paralleled by a time-dependent increase of apoptotic brain cells marked by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL), an increase of Bax-positive cells and a decrease of Bcl-2-positive cells. Evaluation of different brain regions revealed that the hippocampus is the most vulnerable region during experimental sepsis. iNOS-inhibition with L-NMMA significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum. In addition, it reduced the increase of the proapoptotic protein Bax in all examined brain regions and reduced the decrease of Bcl-2-positive cells in the hippocampus. We therefore conclude, that peripheral inflammation leads to a profound glial activation, the generation of nitric oxide and changes of Bax and Bcl-2 protein regulation critical for apoptosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology*
  • Brain Mapping
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ectodysplasins
  • Encephalitis / microbiology
  • Encephalitis / pathology
  • Encephalitis / physiopathology*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism
  • Gliosis / microbiology
  • Gliosis / pathology
  • Gliosis / physiopathology*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Microglia / metabolism
  • Nerve Degeneration / pathology
  • Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology*
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors / metabolism
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • Ectodysplasins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II