Kv4 pore-forming subunits are the principal constituents of the voltage-gated K+ channel underlying somatodendritic subthreshold A-type currents (I(SA)) in neurones. Two structurally distinct types of Kv4 channel modulators, Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like proteins (DPLs: DPP6 or DPPX, DPP10 or DPPY), enhance surface expression and modify functional properties. Since KChIP and DPL distributions overlap in the brain, we investigated the potential coassembly of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPL proteins, and the contribution of DPLs to ternary complex properties. Immunoprecipitation results show that KChIP3 and DPP10 associate simultaneously with Kv4.2 proteins in rat brain as well as heterologously expressing Xenopus oocytes, indicating Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 multiprotein complexes. Consistent with ternary complex formation, coexpression of Kv4.2, KChIP3 and DPP10 in oocytes and CHO cells results in current waveforms distinct from the arithmetic sum of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 and Kv4.2 + DPP10 currents. Furthermore, the Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 channels recover from inactivation very rapidly (tau(rec) approximately 18-26 ms), closely matching that of native I(SA) and significantly faster than the recovery of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 or Kv4.2 + DPP10 channels. For comparison, identical triple coexpression experiments were performed using DPP6 variants. While most results are similar, the Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP6 channels exhibit inactivation that slows with increasing membrane potential, resulting in inactivation slower than that of Kv4.2 + KChIP3 + DPP10 channels at positive voltages. In conclusion, the native neuronal subthreshold A-type channel is probably a macromolecular complex formed from Kv4 and a combination of both KChIP and DPL proteins, with the precise composition of channel alpha and auxiliary subunits underlying tissue and regional variability in I(SA) properties.