Cripto-1: a multifunctional modulator during embryogenesis and oncogenesis

Oncogene. 2005 Aug 29;24(37):5731-41. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208918.


It is increasingly evident that genes known to perform critical roles during early embryogenesis, particularly during stem cell renewal, pluripotentiality and survival, are also expressed during the development of cancer. In this regard, oncogenesis may be considered as the recapitulation of embryogenesis in an inappropriate temporal and spatial manner. The epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1/FRL1/cryptic family of proteins consists of extracellular and cell-associated proteins that have been identified in several vertebrate species. During early embryogenesis, epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1/FRL1/cryptic proteins perform an obligatory role as coreceptors for the transforming growth factor-beta subfamily of proteins, which includes Nodal. Cripto-1 has also been shown to function as a ligand through a Nodal/Alk4-independent signaling pathway that involves binding to glypican-1 and the subsequent activation through src of phosphoinositol-3 kinase/Akt and ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase intracellular pathways. Expression of Cripto-1 is increased in several human cancers and its overexpression is associated with the development of mammary tumors in mice. Here, we review the role of Cripto-1 during embryogenesis, cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis and how these activities may relate to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. We also briefly discuss evidence suggesting that Cripto-1 may be involved in stem cell maintenance.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Activin Receptors, Type I / physiology
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Embryonic Development*
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology*
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Milk Proteins / genetics
  • Neoplasm Proteins / physiology*
  • Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic
  • Nodal Protein
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology
  • Proteins / physiology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Smad2 Protein
  • Trans-Activators / physiology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • Wnt Proteins


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Milk Proteins
  • NODAL protein, human
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nodal Protein
  • Nodal protein, mouse
  • Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • SMAD2 protein, human
  • Smad2 Protein
  • TDGF1 protein, human
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • ACVR1 protein, human
  • ACVR1B protein, human
  • ACVR1C protein, human
  • Activin Receptors, Type I