Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) are known to have increased left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic dysfunction. It has been suggested that LV mass and diastolic function normalize after aortic valve replacement (AVR). In the present study, change in LV mass index and diastolic function 10 years after AVR for AS was evaluated. Patients who underwent AVR from 1991 to 1993 (n = 57; mean age 67 +/- 8.6 years at AVR, 58% men) were investigated with Doppler echocardiography preoperatively and 2 and 10 years postoperatively. Diastolic function was evaluated by integrating mitral and pulmonary venous flow data. Expected values for each patient, taking age into consideration, were defined using a control group (n = 71; age range 18 to 83 years). Patients were classified into 4 types: normal diastolic function (type A), mild diastolic dysfunction (type B), moderate diastolic dysfunction (type C), and severe diastolic dysfunction (type D). There was a reduction in LV mass index between the preoperative (161 +/- 39 g/m2) and 2-year follow-up (114 +/- 28 g/m2) examinations (p <0.0001), but no further reduction was seen at 10 years (119 +/- 49 g/m2). The percentage of patients with increased LV mass index decreased from 83% preoperatively to 29% at 2-year follow-up (p <0.001). The percentage of patients with moderate to severe LV diastolic dysfunction (types C and D) was unchanged between the preoperative (7%) and 2-year follow-up (13%) examinations (p = 0.27). The percentage of patients increased at 10-year follow-up to 61% (p <0.0001). In conclusion, this reveals the development of moderate to severe diastolic dysfunction 10 years after AVR, despite a reduction in the LV mass index.