Evaluation of cervical posture of children in skeletal class I, II, and III

Cranio. 2005 Jul;23(3):219-28. doi: 10.1179/crn.2005.031.


Previous studies on the relationship between morphological structure of the face and cervical posture have predominantly focused on vertical dimensions of the face. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant differences in cervical posture in subjects with a different sagittal morphology of the face, i.e., a different skeletal class. One hundred twenty (120) children (60 males and 60 females, average age 9.5 yrs., SD+/-0.5) were admitted for orthodontic treatment. Selection criteria was: European ethnic origin, date of birth, considerable skeletal growth potential remaining and an absence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Lateral skull radiographs were taken in mirror position. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their skeletal class. The cephalometric tracings included postural variables. The most interesting findings were: 1. children in skeletal class III showed a significantly lower cervical lordosis angle (p<0.001) than the children in skeletal class I and skeletal class II; 2. children in skeletal class II showed a significantly higher extension of the head upon the spinal column compared to children in skeletal class I and skeletal class III (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). This is probably because the lower part of their spinal column was straighter than those of subjects in skeletal class I and II (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Significant differences among the three groups were also observed in the inclination of maxillary and mandibular bases to the spinal column. The posture of the neck seems to be strongly associated with the sagittal as well as the vertical structure of the face.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Axis, Cervical Vertebra / pathology
  • Cephalometry
  • Cervical Atlas / pathology
  • Cervical Vertebrae / pathology*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Head / pathology
  • Humans
  • Lordosis / pathology
  • Male
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class I / pathology*
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class II / pathology*
  • Malocclusion, Angle Class III / pathology*
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Odontoid Process / pathology
  • Posture
  • Skull Base / pathology
  • Vertical Dimension