Hair treatment chemicals induce sudden and severe hair damage. In this study, we examined cuticles from untreated, permed, and bleached hair that were mechanically discriminated by shaking in water. Both perming and bleaching treatments are prone to easily delaminate cuticles. Confocal microscopy revealed that the cuticles of permed hair were delaminated with larger pieces than untreated ones. On the other hand, the cuticles of bleached hair tend to fragment into small peptides. At the minimum concentration of thioglycolate required to elute S100A3 protein from the endocuticle into the reductive permanent waving lotion, enlarged delaminated cuticle fragments were observed. Although S100A3 is retained in bleached hair, S100A3 is irreversibly oxidized upon bleaching treatment. It is likely that the oxidative cleavage of disulfide bonds between cuticle-constituting proteins, including S100A3, results in the fragile property of cuticles. Here we present a more comprehensive model of hair damage based on a diverse mechanism of cuticle delamination.