A pilot prospective study on the consultation and relational empathy, patient enablement, and health changes over 12 months in patients going to the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital

J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):591-600. doi: 10.1089/acm.2005.11.591.


Objective: To relate prospectively initial consultation characteristics-length, empathy, and patient enablement- with perceived health changes in patients going to the Glasgow Homoeopathic Hospital (GHH).

Methods: Consecutive outpatients completed the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure and the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) immediately after their first consultations, again at 3 months, and the PEI also at 12 months. The Short Form-12 was completed immediately before and the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome (MYMOP) Profile during the first consultation, and both were repeated at 3 and 12 months. Perceived changes in main complaint and well-being were assessed using the Glasgow Homoeopathic Outcome Scale (GHHOS).

Results: Empathy score at first consultation was highly predictive of ongoing empathy score at 3 months (Spearman's rho, 0.572, p < 0.0001). Empathy scores at first consultation also correlated significantly with enablement score at first consultation (rho, 0.325, p < 0.0001) and overall enablement at 12 months (rho, 0.281; p < 0.05). Controlling for the number of subsequent consultations, initial empathy scores were also predictive of change in main complaint, and general well-being, at 3 months (rho, 0.225, 0.213 respectively; p < 0.05). Enablement score at first consultation also predicted overall enablement at 3 months (rho, 0.255; p < 0.05) and 12 months (rho, 0.282; p < 0.05). Initial enablement predicted GHOSS well-being score at 3 months after controlling for number of consultations (rho, 0.279; p < 0.05). Both empathy and enablement at 3 months predicted overall enablement at 12 months (rho, 0.327; p < 0.01 and rho, 0.577; p < 0.0001, respectively). Empathy at 3 months was not significantly related to GHHOS scores at 12 months, whereas enablement scores at 3 months were highly predictive of both GHHOS main complaint and well-being scores at 12 months (rho, 0.459 and 0.507, respectively; p < 0.0001). Empathy and enablement scores did not correlate significantly with changes in SF-12 and MYMOP scores at any of the time points. The length of the first consultation was related to initial and subsequent CARE scores, overall enablement, and GHHOS scores at 3 and 12 months.

Conclusions: Empathy is crucial for enablement, which, in turn, is strongly related to perceived change in main complaint and well-being. The length of time the clinician spends with a patient at initial consultation appears to be an important factor in these complex relationships among process and outcome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Empathy*
  • Health Status
  • Holistic Health*
  • Homeopathy / standards*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Satisfaction* / statistics & numerical data
  • Pilot Projects
  • Professional-Patient Relations*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Referral and Consultation* / standards
  • Scotland
  • State Medicine / standards
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors