Children with congenital heart disease need adequate diagnostic classification regarding their cardiovascular status (CVS). N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-BNP) plasma concentration indicates dysfunction of the cardiovascular system and guides decisions concerning treatment and prognosis. Reference values are established for adults, with age-dependent increasing values and higher values in women. To avoid misclassification concerning the CVS, a large group of healthy children and adolescents can be used show the relationship between gender, age, and N-BNP and these can serve as reference values. N-BNP was measured in 434 healthy subjects (240 female and 194 male) with ages ranging from 0 to 32 years without any cardiovascular disease or renal or hepatic impairment. Measurements were performed with an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay from Roche Diagnostics. Mean N-BNP decreased from 12.6 fmol/ml (0-9 years; n = 79) to 9.41 fmol/ml (10-14 years; n = 154) and in adolescents from 6.1 (15-19 years; n = 99) to 4.8 fmol/ml (> 19 years; n = 102) in adults (p < 0.05). Mean N-BNP concerning gender did not differ in any age group younger than 19 years. In contrast, the adult female group had 78% higher N-BNP compared to the male group (p < 0.05). There was a significant peak in N-BNP at the age of 12-14 years. This study shows that reference values for N-BNP differed profoundly in children compared to adults and were up to 260% higher in children without any gender difference. Therefore, these reference values will help to avoid CVS misclassification in children for the biomarker N-BNP.