Described here are seven new cases of infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli, including four involving prosthetic valves, followed by a review of similar cases in the literature. The review identified cases according to the modified Duke's criteria and revealed 16 cases reported before 1960, 5 between 1960 and 1980, and 11 after 1980. Currently, patients diagnosed with E. coli endocarditis are older than the patients diagnosed before 1960 (p<0.05), and they are often diabetic with underlying heart disease. Prosthetic valves are frequently involved (p<0.05), and the principal source of infection is the urinary tract. Surgery is often necessary. The mortality rate associated with this type of infection has decreased since 1960, but it remains high, with 17% calculated for the present series of seven new cases. The data presented here suggest that elderly patients with prior valve disease or prosthetic valve and E. coli urinary tract infection should be examined for endocarditis.