We have reported that neonatal infection leads to memory impairment after an immune challenge in adulthood. Here we explored whether events occurring as a result of early infection alter the response to a subsequent immune challenge in adult rats, which may then impair memory. In experiment 1, peripheral infection with Escherichia coli on postnatal day 4 increased cytokines and corticosterone in the periphery, and cytokine and microglial cell marker gene expression in the hippocampus of neonate pups. Next, rats treated neonatally with E. coli or PBS were injected in adulthood with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline and killed 1-24 h later. Microglial cell marker mRNA was elevated in hippocampus in saline controls infected as neonates. Furthermore, LPS induced a greater increase in glial cell marker mRNA in hippocampus of neonatally infected rats, and this increase remained elevated at 24 h versus controls. After LPS, neonatally infected rats exhibited faster increases in interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) within the hippocampus and cortex and a prolonged response within the cortex. There were no group differences in peripheral cytokines or corticosterone. In experiment 2, rats treated neonatally with E. coli or PBS received as adults either saline or a centrally administered caspase-1 inhibitor, which specifically prevents the synthesis of IL-1beta, 1 h before a learning event and subsequent LPS challenge. Caspase-1 inhibition completely prevented LPS-induced memory impairment in neonatally infected rats. These data implicate IL-1beta in the set of immune/inflammatory events that occur in the brain as a result of neonatal infection, which likely contribute to cognitive alterations in adulthood.