Myocardial biopsy based classification and treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

Int J Cardiol. 2005 Sep 15;104(1):92-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2005.02.052.


Background: We investigated whether myocardial biopsy analysis for inflammation and viruses correlates with outcome in dilated cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Myocardial biopsies of 82 patients were analyzed for HLAI, HLAII, CD54, CD2, CD68 and entero-/adenovirus. Ejection fraction was determined by left ventriculography. NYHA classification, electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were analyzed at first admission and for follow up. Patients were attributed to three groups: (A) no inflammation/no virus (B) inflammation/no virus (C) virus with/without inflammation. Patients not responding to conventional treatment of heart failure received interferon beta1b (group C) or prednisolone (group B). Median follow up was 7 months (group A), 11 months (group B) and 14.5 months (group C).

Results: Thirty nine patients (48%) belonged to group A, 33 patients (40%) to group B, 10 patients (12%) to group C. Only enterovirus was detected. Ejection fraction at admission was worse for group B compared to group A (p=0.003). Groups A and B improved for echocardiography and NYHA (p< or =0.001). Group C improved for echocardiography only (p=0.031). Group B showed a better outcome for echocardiography (p=0.014) and NYHA (p=0.023) than group A.

Conclusions: Inflammatory cardiomyopathy shows the best outcome. Antiinflammatory or antiviral treatment may be an option in patients not responding to conventional therapy.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biopsy
  • CD2 Antigens / drug effects
  • CD2 Antigens / metabolism
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / metabolism
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / pathology*
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated / therapy*
  • Echocardiography
  • Electrocardiography
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Germany
  • Heart Failure / pathology
  • Heart Failure / therapy
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism
  • Interferon beta-1b
  • Interferon-beta / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocarditis / pathology
  • Myocarditis / therapy
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Prednisolone / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Stroke Volume / drug effects


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • CD2 Antigens
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interferon beta-1b
  • Interferon-beta
  • Prednisolone