Study design: A review of the laboratory and clinical data for a new strontium-containing hydroxyapatite bioactive bone cement.
Objectives: To compare the properties of the strontium-containing bioactive bone cement with those of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) bone cements.
Summary of background data: Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty using conventional PMMA bone cements have been effectively used to treat osteoporotic spine fractures with good short- and medium-term results. However, PMMA has some undesirable properties, including its high setting temperature, lack of osseointegration, and large stiffness mismatch with osteoporotic bone. These properties are responsible for some postoperative complications.
Methods: Strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bioactive bone cement consists of a filler blend of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite, fumed silica and benzoyl peroxide; and a resin blend of bisphenol A diglycidylether methacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate, and N, N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Its properties, including mechanical strength, setting temperature, biocompatibility, and osseoinduction, were compared with other cements in vitro and in vivo. Early clinical results are presented.
Results: The Sr-HA cement has a setting time of 15 to 18 minutes, a maximum setting temperature of 58 degrees C, a compressive strength of 40.9 MPa, bending strength of 31.3 MPa, and a bending modulus of 1,408 MPa. The bending strength and modulus are closer to human cancellous bone. Sr-HA cement promotes osteoblast attachment and mineralization in vitro and bone growth and osseointegration in vivo. In a pilot study, 23 cases of osteoporotic fractures treated with this cement with a mean follow-up of 18 months suggest that it is as effective as PMMA in relieving pain.
Discussions: Oral strontium has been shown to induce new bone formation and is effective in reducing fracture risk in osteoporosis. Our data suggest that strontium delivered locally has the same effect; thus, the combination of strontium with HA in a cement with a low setting temperature, adequate stiffness, and low viscosity makes this a good bioactive cement for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty.