Thyroid function was evaluated in 72 adult survivors (41 females and 31 males) at 16 to 56 years of age, 1.5 years mean time (range 0.2 - 9.8) after hemapoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with no known prior history of thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin levels (FT4) were determined before and after stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Conditioning regimens for HSCT did not include TBI. Overt hypothyroidism (basal TSH > 8 microIU/ml, FT4 < 0.8 ng/dl) was observed in 6% of male patients and 5% of female patients; subclinical hypothyroidism (basal TSH 4 - 8 microIU/ml, low normal FT4 0.8 - 1.9 ng/dl) was observed in 13% of males and 5% of females. A significant number of euthyroid patients (40% males and 54% females) with normal basal TSH and FT4 levels overresponded to TRH stimulation; the finding being statistically significant (p < 0.005). A heavy TSH response after TRH stimulation indicates compensated subclinical dysfunction of the thyroid gland. Chemotherapy-only conditioning regimens may have an adverse effect on thyroid gland function not always detected by determination of basal TSH and FT4 levels. This finding warrants long-term evaluation of thyroid function in HSCT patients.