Current trends of HIV disease of the mouth

J Oral Pathol Med. 2005 Oct;34(9):513-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.2005.00337.x.


HIV infection affects residents of all countries of the world, but the greater majority of affected individuals reside in the developing world. In the past decade there have been substantial changes in the management of HIV disease, particularly the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Such agents have reduced significantly the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV disease, however, they are not available for most HIV-infected individuals in the developing world. There is now considerable understanding of the molecular epidemiology, transmission and therapy of the common opportunistic oral infections of HIV disease, and as a consequence of improved anti-HIV strategies, the frequency and severity of oral disease associated with HIV infection have reduced considerably, although HAART may predispose to human papilloma virus infection of the mouth and potentially increase the risk of later oral squamous cell carcinoma. Despite advances in clinical care the majority of individuals with HIV disease worldwide will continue to develop oral disease, as they are resident in the developing world and do not have ready access to even simple therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Developing Countries
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Global Health
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Mouth Diseases / etiology*
  • Risk Factors