Cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of tumour cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in that effect have not been completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells. Results show that stimulation of the CB2 receptor leads to p38 MAPK activation and that inhibition of this kinase attenuates CB2 receptor-induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These findings support a role for p38 MAPK in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells.