Salmonella typhimurium has emerged as a model pathogen that manipulates host cells in a complex fashion, thus causing disease. In humans, S. typhimurium causes acute intestinal inflammation. Intriguingly, type III secreted virulence proteins have a central role in this process. At the cellular level, the functions of these factors are well characterized; at present, animal models are required for elucidating how these factors trigger inflammatory disease in vivo. Calf infection models have been employed successfully and, recently, a mouse model was identified: in streptomycin-pretreated mice, S. typhimurium causes acute colitis. This mouse model provides a new avenue for research into acute intestinal inflammation because it enables the manipulation and dissection of both the bacterial and host contributions to the disease in unsurpassed detail.