Transcription factors in the germline play important roles in ovary formation and folliculogenesis, and control both oocyte development and somatic cell function. Factor in the germline (Figla) and newborn ovary homeobox gene (Nobox) represent a growing number of oocyte-specific transcription factors that regulate genes unique to oocytes. Studies on oocyte-specific transcription factors are important in understanding the genetic pathways essential for oogenesis, pluripotency, and embryonic development. Likely, these genes regulate reproductive life span and represent candidate genes for reproductive disorders, such as premature ovarian failure, and infertility. Therefore, oocyte-specific transcription factors, and oocyte-specific genes regulated by such factors, are attractive tissue-specific pharmacological targets to regulate human fertility.