Implantation is the process by which the blastocyst comes into intimate physical and physiological contact with the uterine endometrium. This process is governed by an intimate cross-talk between the activated blastocyst and the receptive uterus. An increased understanding of mammalian implantation has been gained through the use of the mouse model. This review highlights the more recently defined signaling cascades involved in this dialogue, focusing specifically on cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, Wnt proteins, homeotic transcription factors, and immunophilins. Unraveling the nature of these signals and discovering additional molecular cascades may lead to strategies to correct implantation failure and improve pregnancy rates in women.