Lymphocyte depletion has a long history in the area of therapeutic immunosuppression. CAMPATH-1H (alemtuzumab) was generated in an attempt to replace anti-lymphocyte globulins in the transplant arena. Its efficacy in killing lymphocytes has established it as a licensed drug for the management of chronic lymphocyte leukaemia. Short-term therapy with alemtuzumab has demonstrated long-term benefit in a number of autoimmune conditions. This drug has the potential to facilitate recruitment of tolerance processes so enabling drug minimization in transplantation, autoimmune and hypersensitivity diseases.