Antibody-secreting cell (ASC) and antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assays are used to assess intestinal mucosal responses to enteric infections and vaccines. The ALS assay, performed on cell supernatants, may represent a convenient alternative to the more established ASC assay. The two methods, measuring immunoglobulin A to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi lipopolysaccharide, were compared in volunteers vaccinated with a live-attenuated typhoid vaccine M01ZH09. The specificity of the ALS assay compared to the ASC assay was excellent (100%), as was sensitivity (82%). The ALS assay was less sensitive than the ASC assay at <or=42 spots/10(6) peripheral blood lymphocytes.