Grading the severity of congestive heart failure in infants

Pediatr Cardiol. 1992 Apr;13(2):72-5. doi: 10.1007/BF00798207.


To determine which variables most accurately define congestive heart failure (CHF) in infants, 41 patients (median age 2.5 months) were graded by four pediatric cardiologists for the presence and severity of CHF based on the following variables: amount of formula consumed per feeding, feeding time, history of diaphoresis or tachypnea, growth parameters, respiratory and heart rates, respiratory pattern, perfusion, presence of edema, diastolic filling sounds, and hepatomegaly. There were 19 patients graded as having no CHF, nine as mild, seven moderate, and six severe CHF. The most sensitive and specific variables (p less than 0.0001) for the presence of CHF were a history of less than 3.5 oz/feed, respiratory rate greater than 50/min, an abnormal respiratory pattern, diastolic filling sounds, and hepatomegaly. Moderate to severe CHF was present when patients took less than 3 oz/feed or greater than 40 min/feed, had an abnormal respiratory pattern with a resting respiratory rate greater than 60/min, and had a diastolic filling sound and moderate hepatomegaly. Severe CHF was accompanied by a heart rate greater than 170/min, decreased perfusion, and severe hepatomegaly. Thus, the grading of the severity of CHF in infants should include an accurate description of these historical and clinical variables.

MeSH terms

  • Heart / physiopathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / classification*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Failure / classification*
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Heart Function Tests
  • Hemodynamics / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant