Effects of a cognition-emotion focused program to increase public participation in Papanicolaou smear screening

Public Health Nurs. Jul-Aug 2005;22(4):289-98. doi: 10.1111/j.0737-1209.2005.220404.x.


Objective: Despite high incidence rates of cervical cancer in Korea, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests are not utilized as a preventive behavior. This study examined the effects of an emotion-cognition focused program on the decision of taking Pap tests in Korean women.

Design: A non-equivalent control group post-test only design was utilized.

Sample: A convenience sample was randomly assigned to either experimental (N=48) or control group (N=48) after matching for education and age.

Measurements: Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test, Champion's Health Belief Model, and Self-Efficacy Scale were used. Intention and stage of adoption to take a Pap test were measured with single items.

Results: Women in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on knowledge of cervical cancer (t=6.99, p<.001) and perceived benefits of Pap tests (t=2.91, p<.05), lower scores on procedural (t=-2.45, p<.05) and cognitive (t=-2.66, p<.01) barriers to testing. Improvement in self-efficacy (t=3.38, p<.01), strong intention to have the test (t=2.99, p<.01), and advanced stages of behavior adoption (chi2=12.93, p<.01) were also found.

Conclusions: Women's perspectives, attitudes of health care practitioners, and clinical environment need to be considered if change is to happen in women's preventive behavior related to Pap test screening.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cognition
  • Community Health Nursing
  • Curriculum
  • Decision Making
  • Educational Measurement
  • Emotions
  • Female
  • Health Education / organization & administration*
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Humans
  • Korea / epidemiology
  • Mass Screening / psychology*
  • Mass Screening / statistics & numerical data
  • Motivation
  • Nurse's Role
  • Nursing Education Research
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Papanicolaou Test*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Program Evaluation
  • Self Efficacy
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Vaginal Smears / psychology*
  • Vaginal Smears / statistics & numerical data