We have shown that administration of a novel anti-CD54 monoclonal antibody (UV3) results in long-term survival of SCID mice bearing human myeloma xenografts. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between the expression of CD54 and the progression of uveal melanoma. Our study assessed the expression of CD54 on 7 human uveal melanoma cell lines and 3 cell lines established from uveal melanoma metastases. In vivo studies examined the efficacy of systemic and local administration of UV3 antibody on the progression of uveal melanoma cells transplanted either heterotopically or orthotopically into SCID mice. Five of the 7 primary uveal melanoma cell lines and all 3 of the metastases cell lines expressed CD54. Intraperitoneal injection of either IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of UV3 significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous and intraocular melanomas. Subconjunctival injection of either IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of UV3 produced a significant reduction in the growth of intraocular melanomas, even if the antibody was administered after the appearance of intraocular tumors. The results indicate that both primary and metastatic human uveal melanoma cells express CD54. The marked inhibition of intraocular and subcutaneous uveal melanoma progression suggests that UV3 antibody is a promising therapeutic agent for further evaluation in patients with uveal melanoma. This is especially noteworthy, as no existing therapeutic modality prevents metastasis of uveal melanoma or prolongs the survival of patients with uveal melanoma.