A variant of histone H2A, H2AX, is phosphorylated on Ser139 in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and clusters of the phosphorylated form of H2AX (gamma-H2AX) in nuclei of DSB-induced cells show foci at breakage sites. Here, we show phosphorylation of H2AX in a cell cycle-dependent manner without any detectable DNA damage response. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses with the anti-gamma-H2AX antibody revealed that H2AX is phosphorylated at M phase in HeLa cells. In ataxia-telangiectasia cells lacking ATM kinase activity, gamma-H2AX was scarcely detectable in the mitotic chromosomes, suggesting involvement of ATM in M-phase phosphorylation of H2AX. Single-cell gel electrophoresis assay and Western blot analysis with the anti-phospho-p53 (Ser15) antibody indicated that H2AX in human M-phase cells is phosphorylated independently of DSB and DNA damage signaling. Even in the absence of DNA damage, phosphorylation of H2AX in normal cell cycle progression may contribute to maintenance of genomic integrity.