Aims: The study was designed to evaluate a novel cationic lipid DNA adjuvant (N3) and its function for HIV-1gp160/rev DNA plasmid delivered intranasally. The primary N3/HIV-DNA plasmid immunizations were boosted intranasally with a gp41 peptide in a anionic L3 adjuvant. This novel prime-boost strategy of mucosal immunization provided a broad HIV-1 envelope specific immunity, and recognition of viruses of subtypes A, B and C.
Conclusions: Intranasal N3-adjuvanted gp160/rev DNA prime followed by one L3-peptide boosting immunization, induced broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in the mucosa and systemically. The needle-free intranasal prime-boost strategy using two different adjuvant formulations reduced significantly the dose of DNA needed.