A novel DNA adjuvant, N3, enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by HIV-1 DNA and peptide immunizations

Vaccine. 2006 May 22;24(21):4494-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.015. Epub 2005 Aug 19.


Aims: The study was designed to evaluate a novel cationic lipid DNA adjuvant (N3) and its function for HIV-1gp160/rev DNA plasmid delivered intranasally. The primary N3/HIV-DNA plasmid immunizations were boosted intranasally with a gp41 peptide in a anionic L3 adjuvant. This novel prime-boost strategy of mucosal immunization provided a broad HIV-1 envelope specific immunity, and recognition of viruses of subtypes A, B and C.

Conclusions: Intranasal N3-adjuvanted gp160/rev DNA prime followed by one L3-peptide boosting immunization, induced broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in the mucosa and systemically. The needle-free intranasal prime-boost strategy using two different adjuvant formulations reduced significantly the dose of DNA needed.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA, Viral / administration & dosage*
  • Feces / chemistry
  • Female
  • HIV Antibodies / biosynthesis
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160 / immunology
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / administration & dosage
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41 / immunology
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunoglobulin A / analysis
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Peptides / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*
  • Vagina / immunology


  • DNA, Viral
  • HIV Antibodies
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp160
  • HIV Envelope Protein gp41
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Peptides
  • Vaccines, DNA