The Inflammatory Neuropathy and Treatment (INCAT) group developed a standardized ELISA method for the detection of serum anti-GM1 antibodies. The diagnostic value of anti-GM1 antibodies determined by this method has not yet been established in large groups of patients. We assessed the reproducibility, sources of variation, optimal cut-off values and evaluated the diagnostic relevance of the INCAT-ELISA in various groups of patients and controls (N=1232). The coefficient of variance was 11.2% for IgM and 3.8% for IgG. High IgG titers were only found in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and other inflammatory polyneuropathies. High IgM titers were associated with GBS and multifocal motor neuropathy. Low IgM titers had no additional diagnostic value. The INCAT-ELISA is a reliable test with additional diagnostic value in specific clinical situations.