Statistical analysis of clinical risk factors for coronary artery spasm: identification of the most important determinant

Am Heart J. 1992 Jul;124(1):32-8. doi: 10.1016/0002-8703(92)90917-k.


Coronary artery spasm plays an important role in acute ischemic events, and it has a close relationship with coronary atherosclerosis. Thus we attempted to determine the most significant risk factor for coronary artery spasm. Among 3000 consecutive patients who underwent coronary cineangiography with ergonovine maleate testing, 330 with typical angina pectoris (group 1) and 294 with old myocardial infarction (group 2) were studied. We divided each group into three or four subgroups according to the presence of fixed organic stenosis (FOS+) or a positive reaction to ergonovine maleate (coronary artery spasm [CAS]+). We examined the relationship between coronary artery spasm and eight coronary risk factors: age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and serum cholesterol, uric acid, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of smokers in the subgroups with CAS(+) was significantly higher than in the subgroups with CAS(-)(p less than 0.01). There was no correlation between smoking and fixed organic stenosis. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, there was a positive correlation between smoking and CAS(+) and between serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and CAS(+)(p less than 0.01). Thus we concluded that smoking is the most significant risk factor in discriminating between patients with and without coronary artery spasm.

MeSH terms

  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Vasospasm / diagnosis
  • Coronary Vasospasm / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Ergonovine / analogs & derivatives
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Ergonovine