Because of the increasing availability of antiretroviral (ARV) agents for HIV in low-income countries, many clinicians now need training on their use. This is especially true for clinicians caring for individuals with tuberculosis (TB), given its close relationship with HIV/AIDS. This article summarizes the key decisions facing clinicians who manage HIV-infected persons, with particular reference to issues regarding those dually infected with TB. Health care provider-initiated diagnostic testing using rapid HIV tests should be offered to all individuals with symptoms and signs suggesting HIV infection, including all persons with TB. Issues to be included in pre- and post-test counseling sessions are discussed. HIV-infected patients should be evaluated to determine clinical staging of HIV; certain laboratory examinations should ideally be performed to assess the degree of immunosuppression and to aid decisions about when best to start ARV therapy and preventive therapies. The recommended ARV regimens and guidance on proposed patient follow-up are presented. Good adherence to ARVs is required and factors that induce and reinforce compliance are suggested. The treatment of TB is a high priority, and follows the same principles whether the patient is HIV-infected or not. Suggestions are made about ARV use in patients with TB. A standardized and complementary information system should be developed to monitor management of HIV-TB patients and performance of joint TB and HIV care efforts. By diagnosing and managing additional HIV cases detected through the portal of the TB control programme, clinicians will contribute to diminishing the burden of HIV, and thus, TB.