The aim of the present study was to determine in the BALB/c mice, a model of development of atherosclerosis when both hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are present, whether the atherogenic effects of these parameters could be decreased with the administration of Vitamin E. BALB/c mice were made diabetic and divided in three groups: one fed the standard rodent chow diet (D); the other two fed an atherogenic diet (D+A); one of them supplemented with Vitamin E (D+A+E). Two groups of non diabetic animals were also performed, one fed the standard diet (C) and the other the atherogenic diet (C+A). After 16 weeks of treatment all the control animals survived, in contrast, a mortality rate of 12, 70 and 37% was observed, respectively, in the D, D+A and D+A+E groups. Neither fatty deposits nor macrophages were observed in the arterial wall of the animals fed the standard diet (D and C animals). In contrast, this finding was observed in 25% of the C+A, 71% of the D+A and 33% of the D+A+E. In conclusion, diabetic mice fed an atherogenic diet showed in the aorta a higher number of fatty deposits and macrophages than the control animals. These effects were partially reversed with the administration of Vitamin E, supporting in this model the role of oxidative stress in the development of atherosclerosis.