Parallel MR imaging: a user's guide

Radiographics. Sep-Oct 2005;25(5):1279-97. doi: 10.1148/rg.255045202.


Parallel imaging is a recently developed family of techniques that take advantage of the spatial information inherent in phased-array radiofrequency coils to reduce acquisition times in magnetic resonance imaging. In parallel imaging, the number of sampled k-space lines is reduced, often by a factor of two or greater, thereby significantly shortening the acquisition time. Parallel imaging techniques have only recently become commercially available, and the wide range of clinical applications is just beginning to be explored. The potential clinical applications primarily involve reduction in acquisition time, improved spatial resolution, or a combination of the two. Improvements in image quality can be achieved by reducing the echo train lengths of fast spin-echo and single-shot fast spin-echo sequences. Parallel imaging is particularly attractive for cardiac and vascular applications and will likely prove valuable as 3-T body and cardiovascular imaging becomes part of standard clinical practice. Limitations of parallel imaging include reduced signal-to-noise ratio and reconstruction artifacts. It is important to consider these limitations when deciding when to use these techniques.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*