MR guidance has been used recently to navigate endovascular catheters and deliver stents in large (aorta and pulmonary) and small (coronary, renal, and femoral) arteries, place ASD closure devices, deliver pulmonary valve stents, guide cardiac RF ablations, and perform intramyocardial injections. However, MR visualization of a stent lumen is still a problem and requires more attention. Because of technical limitations and safety concerns associated with the prototype devices used, limited numbers of clinical studies have been performed. Considerable development is necessary to overcome the challenges and take advantage of the benefits that MR has to offer for endovascular interventions. In this article we review the current state of the art and address the topic partly by referring to our own experiments and presenting our recent illustrations.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.