A multilevel examination of the relationships among training outcomes, mediating regulatory processes, and adaptive performance

J Appl Psychol. 2005 Sep;90(5):827-41. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.827.


This study examined whether cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral training outcomes relate to posttraining regulatory processes and adaptive performance similarly at the individual and team levels of analysis. Longitudinal data were collected from 156 individuals composing 78 teams who were trained on and then performed a simulated flight task. Results showed that posttraining regulation processes related similarly to adaptive performance across levels. Also, regulation processes fully mediated the influences of self- and collective efficacy beliefs on individual and team adaptive performance. Finally, knowledge and skill more strongly and directly related to adaptive performance at the individual than the team level of analysis. Implications to theory and practice, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aircraft
  • Behavior Therapy
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Computer Simulation
  • Female
  • Group Processes
  • Humans
  • Individuality
  • Inservice Training*
  • Job Description*
  • Male
  • Motivation
  • Negotiating*
  • Organizational Innovation
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Transfer, Psychology