Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and abnormal mineral metabolism are thought to play an important role in bone and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic that modulates the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and lowers serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and secondary HPT.
Methods: We undertook a combined analysis of safety data (parathyroidectomy, fracture, hospitalizations, and mortality) from 4 similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolling 1184 subjects (697 cinacalcet, 487 control) with ESRD and uncontrolled secondary HPT (intact PTH > or =300 pg/mL). Cinacalcet or placebo was administered to subjects receiving standard care for hyperphosphatemia and secondary HPT (phosphate binders and vitamin D). Relative risks (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using proportional hazards regression with follow-up times from 6 to 12 months. Health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data were obtained from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Cognitive Functioning scale from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument (KDQOL-CF).
Results: Randomization to cinacalcet resulted in significant reductions in the risk of parathyroidectomy (RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.55), fracture (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95), and cardiovascular hospitalization (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86) compared with placebo. Changes in HRQOL favored cinacalcet, with significant changes observed for the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score and the specific domains of Bodily Pain and General Health Perception.
Conclusion: Combining results from 4 clinical trials, randomization to cinacalcet led to significant reductions in the risk of parathyroidectomy, fracture, and cardiovascular hospitalization, along with improvements in self-reported physical function and diminished pain. These data suggest that, in addition to its effects on PTH and mineral metabolism, cinacalcet had favorable effects on important clinical outcomes.