Introduction: American Indian youths smoke cigarettes at high rates, yet few smoking-cessation programs have been developed for them. The objective of this study, conducted during 2003 and 2004, was to determine the preliminary quit and reduction outcomes of the American Lung Association's newly adapted American Indian Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) program.
Methods: Seventy-four American Indian youths aged 14 to 19 years in North Carolina were enrolled in the American Indian N-O-T program or a brief 15-minute intervention. Quit and reduction rates were compared 3 months after baseline using compliant subsamples and intention-to-treat analyses.
Results: Among males in the American Indian N-O-T program, between 18% (intention-to-treat) and 29% (compliant subsample) quit smoking. Six males (28.6%) in the American Indian N-O-T program reported quitting smoking; one male (14.3%) in the brief intervention reported quitting. No females in either group quit smoking. More females in the American Indian N-O-T program reduced smoking than females in the brief intervention.
Conclusion: These pilot results suggest that the American Indian N-O-T program offers a useful and feasible cessation option for American Indian youths in North Carolina. Program modifications are necessary to improve outcomes for American Indian females, and recruitment issues require in-depth study. Further study is warranted to determine program efficacy.