Factors predictive of increased influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage in long-term care facilities: the CMS-CDC standing orders program Project

J Am Med Dir Assoc. Sep-Oct 2005;6(5):291-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2005.06.007.


Background: Between 1999 and 2002, a multistate demonstration project was conducted in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to encourage implementation of standing orders programs (SOP) as evidence-based vaccine delivery strategies to increase influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage in LTCFs.

Objective: Examine predictors of increase in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage in LTCFs.

Design: Intervention study. Self-administered surveys of LTCFs merged with data from OSCAR (On-line Survey Certification and Reporting System) and immunization coverage was abstracted from residents' medical charts in LTCFs.

Setting and participants: Twenty LTCFs were sampled from 9 intervention and 5 control states in the 2000 to 2001 influenza season for baseline and during the 2001 to 2002 influenza season for postintervention.

Intervention: Each state's quality improvement organization (QIO) promoted the use of standing orders for immunizations as well as other strategies to increase immunization coverage among LTCF residents.

Main outcome measures: Multivariate analysis included Poisson regression to determine independent predictors of at least a 10 percentage-point increase in facility influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage.

Results: Forty-two (20%) and 59 (28%) of the facilities had at least a 10 percentage-point increase in influenza and pneumococcal immunizations, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, predictors associated with increase in influenza vaccination coverage included adoption of requirement in written immunization protocol to document refusals, less-demanding consent requirements, lower baseline influenza coverage, and small facility size. Factors associated with increase in pneumococcal vaccination coverage included adoption of recording pneumococcal immunizations in a consistent place, affiliation with a multifacility chain, and provision of resource materials.

Conclusions: To improve the health of LTCF residents, strategies should be considered that increase immunization coverage, including written protocol for immunizations and documentation of refusals, documenting vaccination status in a consistent place in medical records, and minimal consent requirements for vaccinations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
  • Female
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Homes for the Aged / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / statistics & numerical data*
  • Incidence
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / supply & distribution
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Long-Term Care
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Nursing Homes / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology
  • Pneumococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines / supply & distribution
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Program Evaluation
  • Quality of Life
  • ROC Curve
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccination / standards*
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines