Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the alpha- or beta-subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Since not all patients have mutations in these genes, other as yet unidentified genes are predicted to be involved as well. Because all affected mitochondrial flavoproteins in MADD have FAD as a prosthetic group, the underlying defect in these patients may be due to a thus far undisclosed disturbance in the metabolism of FAD. Since a proper mitochondrial flavin balance is maintained by a mitochondrial FAD transporter, a defect of this transporter could also cause an MADD-like phenotype. In yeast, FAD is transported across the mitochondrial inner membrane by the FLX1 protein. An FLX1-mutated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain exhibits a decreased activity of several mitochondrial flavoproteins. In the present study, we report the identification of the human mitochondrial FAD transporter. Based on sequence similarity to FLX1, we identified two human candidate genes (MFT and N111), which were cloned and characterized by functional expression in an FLX1-mutated yeast strain. Of the two candidate genes, only the previously described mitochondrial folate transporter (MFT) was able to functionally complement the FLX1 mutant. Candidates for mutations in the MFT gene are patients with a clinical suspicion of MADD but without any mutation in the alpha- or beta-subunit of ETF or ETF-DH.