A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray covering 5,074 of the 5,120 predicted genes from Ralstonia solanacearum has been generated and used to investigate the repertoire of genes that are under the control of the transcription activator HrpB, which governs pathogenicity in this plant pathogenic bacterium. This study identified 143 hrpB up-regulated genes and 50 hrpB down-regulated genes. In addition to extending the repertoire of type III effector proteins with 26 new candidates, this work demonstrates that the hrpB regulon extends beyond type III secretion system-related functions to include a number of genes governing chemotaxy, biosynthesis or catabolism of various low-molecular-weight chemical compounds, and siderophore production and uptake. The presence of several transcripttional regulators and a cluster of genes predicted to encode the synthesis of an acylhomoserine lactone together with the absence of a consensus hrpII box in the promoter of a significant proportion of the hrpB-regulated genes suggest that, for some genes, hrpB regulation might be indirect. Altogether, the data indicate that hrpB acts as a master regulatory gene governing a physiological swing associated with the shift from saprophytic to parasitic life.