Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Inflammation

Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jun;110(3):371-85. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.08.007. Epub 2005 Sep 15.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptors family. PPARs are a family of 3 ligand-activated transcription factors: PPARalpha (NR1C1), PPARbeta/delta (NUC1; NR1C2), and PPARgamma (NR1C3). PPARalpha, -beta/delta, and -gamma are encoded by different genes but show substantial amino acid similarity, especially within the DNA and ligand binding domains. All PPARs act as heterodimers with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptors (retinoid X receptor; RXRs) and play important roles in the regulation of metabolic pathways, including those of lipid of biosynthesis and glucose metabolism, as well as in a variety of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis pathways. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the involvement of PPARs in inflammatory processes. PPAR ligands, in particular those of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, inhibit the activation of inflammatory gene expression and can negatively interfere with pro-inflammatory transcription factor signaling pathways in vascular and inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PPAR levels are differentially regulated in a variety of inflammatory disorders in man, where ligands appear to be promising new therapies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / physiopathology*
  • Ligands
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / physiology*


  • Ligands
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors