msh/Msx gene family in neural development

Trends Genet. 2005 Nov;21(11):624-32. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2005.09.001. Epub 2005 Sep 19.


The involvement of Msx homeobox genes in skull and tooth formation has received a great deal of attention. Recent studies also indicate a role for the msh/Msx gene family in development of the nervous system. In this article, we discuss the functions of these transcription factors in neural-tissue organogenesis. We will deal mainly with the interactions of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene with other homeobox genes and the repressive cascade that leads to neuroectoderm patterning; the role of Msx genes in neural-crest induction, focusing especially on the differences between lower and higher vertebrates; their implication in patterning of the vertebrate neural tube, particularly in diencephalon midline formation. Finally, we will examine the distinct activities of Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 genes during neurogenesis, taking into account their relationships with signalling molecules such as BMP.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Patterning / physiology*
  • Drosophila / embryology
  • Drosophila / metabolism
  • Drosophila Proteins / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / physiology*
  • MSX1 Transcription Factor / genetics
  • MSX1 Transcription Factor / physiology
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology*
  • Nervous System / embryology*
  • Nervous System / metabolism


  • Dr protein, Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • MSX1 Transcription Factor
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins