The gender similarities hypothesis

Am Psychol. 2005 Sep;60(6):581-592. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.60.6.581.


The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Achievement
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aggression / psychology
  • Career Choice
  • Female
  • Gender Identity
  • Humans
  • Individuality
  • Leadership
  • Male
  • Men / psychology*
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Psychological Theory
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Stereotyping
  • Women / psychology*