Differential expression of inflammatory chemokines by Th1- and Th2-cell promoting dendritic cells: a role for different mature dendritic cell populations in attracting appropriate effector cells to peripheral sites of inflammation

Immunol Cell Biol. 2005 Oct;83(5):525-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1711.2005.01365.x.


Protective immunity to pathogens depends on efficient immune responses adapted to the type of pathogen and the infected tissue. Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in directing the effector T cell response to either a protective T helper type 1 (Th1) or type 2 (Th2) phenotype. Human monocyte-derived DC can be differentiated into Th1-, Th2- or Th1/Th2-promoting DC in vitro upon activation with microbial compounds or cytokines. Host defence is highly dependent on mobile leucocytes and cell trafficking is largely mediated by the interactions of chemokines with their specific receptors expressed on the surface of leucocytes. The production of chemokines by mature effector DC remains elusive. Here we assess the differential production of both inflammatory and homeostatic chemokines by monocyte-derived mature Th1/Th2-, Th1- or Th2-promoting DC and its regulation in response to CD40 ligation, thereby mimicking local engagement with activated T cells. We show that mature Th1- and Th1/Th2-, but not Th2-promoting DC, selectively express elevated levels of the inflammatory chemokines CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1alpha, CCL4/MIP-1beta and CCL5/RANTES, as well as the homeostatic chemokine CCL19/MIP-3beta. CCL21/6Ckine is preferentially expressed by Th2-promoting DC. Production of the Th1-attracting chemokines, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10 and CXCL11/I-TAC, is restricted to Th1-promoting DC. In contrast, expression of Th2-associated chemokines does not strictly correlate with the Th2-promoting DC phenotype, except for CCL22/MDC, which is preferentially expressed by Th2-promoting DC. Because inflammatory chemokines and Th1-associated chemokines are constitutively expressed by mature Th1-promoting DC and CCL22/MDC is constitutively expressed by mature Th2-promoting DC, we propose a novel role for mature DC present in inflamed peripheral tissues in orchestrating the immune response by recruiting appropriate leucocyte populations to the site of pathogen entry.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL19 / biosynthesis
  • Chemokine CCL19 / genetics
  • Chemokine CCL21 / biosynthesis
  • Chemokine CCL21 / genetics
  • Chemokines / biosynthesis*
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism*
  • Dendritic Cells / pathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Jurkat Cells
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism*
  • Th1 Cells / pathology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / metabolism*
  • Th2 Cells / pathology


  • Chemokine CCL19
  • Chemokine CCL21
  • Chemokines
  • RNA, Messenger