Several congenital and acquired diseases of the human genito-urinary tract may need, due to lack or destruction of functional tissues, mechanically stable biomaterials as cell carriers for the engineering of these tissues. When using collagen scaffolds, both their capacity to induce tissue regeneration and their biocompatibility are advantageous characteristics to render them apt for tissue engineering. The attachment of extracellular matrix or serum proteins to their surfaces does further improve these characteristics, mimicking a close to natural cell environment. In this study, equine collagen scaffolds (TissueFleece) were modified by coating fetal bovine serum proteins, before human bladder smooth muscle cells were seeded. Cell growth was evaluated by WST-1 proliferation assay and improved when using modified collagen scaffolds. However, cell penetration assessed by histology showed similar results on modified and native scaffolds. These cell-scaffold constructs were further implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous space of athymic mice. In vivo studies showed the presence of the fluorescent-labeled transplanted smooth muscle cells until day 3 and thereafter angiogenesis was induced and infiltration of mouse fibroblasts and polymorphonuclear cells were observed. The latter had completely disappeared after 3 weeks.