DNA polymerase (Pol) lambda is a member of the Pol X family and possesses four different enzymatic activities, being DNA polymerase, terminal transferase, deoxyribose phosphate lyase and polynucleotide synthetase, all localized in its C-terminal region. On the basis of its biochemical properties, Pol lambda has been implicated in various DNA repair pathways, such as abasic site translesion DNA synthesis, base excision repair and non-homologous end joining of double strand breaks. However, its role in vivo has not yet been elucidated. In addition, Pol lambda has been shown to interact with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we searched by affinity chromatography for novel partners and we identified the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2 as novel partner of Pol lambda. Pol lambda is phosphorylated in vitro by several Cdk/cyclin complexes, including Cdk2/cyclin A, in its proline-serine-rich domain. While the polymerase activity of Pol lambda was not affected by Cdk2/cyclin A phosphorylation, phosphorylation of Pol lambda was decreased by its interaction with PCNA. Finally, Pol lambda is also phosphorylated in vivo in human cells and this phosphorylation is modulated during the cell cycle.