Uses and limitations of randomization-based efficacy estimators

Stat Methods Med Res. 2005 Aug;14(4):327-47. doi: 10.1191/0962280205sm406oa.


In randomized trials with departures from allocated treatment, intention-to-treat analysis is important but not always sufficient. The most common supplement to intention-to-treat analysis is per-protocol analysis, whose assumption of comparability between different nonrandomized groups is often implausible. Randomization-based methods avoid making this assumption and are preferable. Situations where intention-to-treat analysis is insufficient and a randomization-based method is useful include provision of patient information, exploration of treatment-covariate and treatment-time interactions, meta-analysis, and equivalence trials.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Child
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Guideline Adherence
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Statistical
  • Nonlinear Dynamics
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*
  • Research Design