This study evaluated the prevalence and specificity of diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome (PCS) in 178 adults with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 104 with extracranial trauma. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria for PCS were evaluated 3 months after injury. The results showed that prevalence of PCS was higher using ICD-10 (64%) than DSM-IV criteria (11%). Specificity to TBI was limited because PCS criteria were often fulfilled by patients with extracranial trauma. The authors conclude that further refinement of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for PCS is needed before these criteria are routinely employed.