Tetralogy of Fallot: results of a pulmonary valve-sparing strategy

Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Oct;80(4):1431-8; discussion 1438-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.04.016.

Abstract

Background: Our surgical strategy for repair of tetralogy of Fallot has focused on preserving the pulmonary valve. The purpose of this review was to identify pulmonary valve characteristics that mark the limits of this strategy.

Methods: From 1997 through 2004, 102 consecutive patients underwent repair of tetralogy of Fallot at a median age of 5.9 months. Twenty-five patients had a prior shunt. Eighty-two patients (80%) had pulmonary valve-sparing procedures, predominantly through a transatrial and transpulmonary approach (n = 52). Twenty patients had a transannular patch (20%). Intraoperative measurements included the pulmonary valve annulus size and the postoperative pressure ratio between the right and left ventricles.

Results: Eighty of 85 (94%) patients with z-score greater than -4 had a pulmonary valve-sparing procedure compared with 2 of 17 patients (12%) with pulmonary valve annulus z-scores less than -4 (p < 0.0001). All patients with a tricuspid pulmonary valve (n = 26) had a pulmonary valve-sparing procedure compared with 56 of 76 (74%) patients with a bicuspid pulmonary valve (p = 0.0016). Five patients with initial pulmonary valve-sparing operations required reoperation for residual stenoses; 4 pulmonary valve-sparing right ventricular outflow tract resections and 1 transannular patch. The only death occurred after reoperation elsewhere. Three of 9 patients (33%) who had a postoperative pressure ratio between the right and left ventricles greater than 0.7 after their initial pulmonary valve-sparing procedure required reoperation compared with 2 of 73 with postoperative pressure ratio between the right and left ventricles less than 0.7 (3%; p = 0.008). Fifteen of 25 patients (60%) with prior shunts had pulmonary valve-sparing procedures.

Conclusions: A pulmonary valve-sparing approach to the repair of tetralogy of Fallot was applied successfully in 80% of patients. Significant markers for success were a measured pulmonary annulus z-score of -4 or larger, a tricuspid pulmonary valve, and a postoperative pressure ratio between the right and left ventricles less than 0.7.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Valve / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / etiology
  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Valve Stenosis / surgery
  • Reoperation / statistics & numerical data
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / complications
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome