In this study the effect of purified rat anti-mouse IL-5 monoclonal antibody on aeroallergen-induced infiltration of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of guinea pigs was studied. The i.p. injection of anti-IL-5 antibody 4 h after aeroallergen challenge inhibited eosinophil infiltration in a dose-dependent fashion. The resulting ED50 was 10 (3.4-32.8) micrograms/kg. The clinical therapeutic usefulness of anti-IL-5 or anti-IL-5-producing cells in asthma/allergy treatment remains to be an intriguing possibility.